Home » Blog posts » Christology and (Human, Angelic, Divine) Intermediary Agents: A Bibliography

Christology and (Human, Angelic, Divine) Intermediary Agents: A Bibliography

*Note: this is a preliminary bibliography that will be continually revised and aims to assist you in your study of Christology and the human, angelic, and divine intermediary agents in Second Temple Judaism and the early Christ movement. Email any suggestions that could be added to the bibliography.


Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israel’s Second God. London: SPCK, 1992.

Barker, Margaret. The Older Testament: The Survival of Themes from the Ancient Royal Cult in Sectarian Judaism and Early Christianity. Sheffield: Phoenix Press, 1985.

Bates, Matthew. The Birth of the Trinity: Jesus, God, and Spirit in New Testament and Early Christian Interpretations of the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Bauckham, Richard. God Crucified: Monotheism and Christology in the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999.

Bauckham, Richard. Jesus and the God of Israel: God Crucified and Other Studies on the New Testament’s Christology of Divine Identity. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 2008.

Bird, Michael F. Are You the One Who is to Come? The Historical Jesus and the Messianic Question. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2009.

Bird, Michael F. Jesus is the Christ: The Messianic Testimony of the Gospels. Downers Grove: IVP, 2012.

Bird, Michael F. Jesus the Eternal Son: Answering Adoptionist Christologies. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2017.

Boccaccini, Gabriele. Editor. Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man: Revisiting the Book of Parables. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.

Bockmuehl, Markus. This Jesus: Martyr, Lord, Messiah. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994.

Boring, M. Eugene. “Markan Christology: God Language for Jesus?” New Testament Studies 45 (1999): 451-71.

Bousset, Wilhelm. Kyrios Christos: A History of the Belief in Christ from the Beginnings of Christianity to Irenaeus. Translated by John E. Steely. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2013.

Boyarin, Daniel. Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2004.

Brown, Raymond. An Introduction to New Testament Christology. New York: Paulinist, 1994.

Burkett, Delbert. The Son of Man Debate: A History and Evaluation. SNTSMS 107. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Capes, David B. Old Testament Yahweh Texts in Paul’s Christology. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1992.

Casey, Maurice. From Jewish Prophet to Gentile God: The Origins and Development of New Testament Christology. Cambridge: James Clarke and Co, 1991.

Casey, Maurice. The Solution to the Son of Man Problem. LNTS 343; London: T&T Clark, 2007.

Charlesworth, J. H. Editor. The Messiah: Developments in Earliest Judaism and Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.

Chester, Andrew. Messiah and Exaltation: Jewish Messianic and Visionary Traditions and New Testament Christology. WUNT I.207. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007.

Collins, John J. The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

Collins, Adela, and Collins, John. King and Messiah as Son of God: Divine, Human and Angelic Messianic Figures in Biblical and Related Literature. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008.

Collins, Adela. “Mark and his Readers: The Son of God among Jews” Harvard Theological Review 92.4 (1999): 393-408.

Collins, Adela. “Mark and his Readers: The Son of God among Greeks and Romans.” Harvard Theological Review 93.2 (2000): 85-100.

Cotter, Wendy J. The Christ of the Miracle Stories: Portrait through Encounter. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2010.

Cullmann, Oscar. The Christology of the New Testament. Translated by Shirley Guthrie and Charles Hall. London: SCM, 1959.

Douglas, Sally. Early Church Understandings of Jesus as the Female Divine: The Scandal of the Scandal of Particularity. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2016. 

Dunn, James. Christology in the Making: A New Testament Inquiry into the Origins of the Doctrine of the Incarnation. Second Edition. London: SCM, 1989.

Dunn, James. Did the First Christians Worship Jesus? The New Testament Evidence. London: Westminster John Knox, 2010.

Ehrman, Bart D. How Jesus Became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee. New York: HarperOne, 2014.

Endo, Masanobu. Creation and Christology: A Study on the Johannine Prologue in the Light of Early Jewish Creation Accounts. WUNT II.149. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002.

Eskola, Timo. Messiah and the Throne. Jewish Merkbah Mysticism and Early Christian Exaltation Discourse. WUNT 2.142. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001.

Fee, Gordon D. Pauline Christology: An Exegetical-Theological Study. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2007.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The One who is to Come. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.

Fletcher-Louis, Crispin. Jesus Monotheism Volume 1, Christological Origins: The Emerging Consensus and Beyond. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2015.

Fossum, Jarl E. The Name of God and the Angel of the Lord: Samaritan and Jewish Concepts of Intermediation and the Origin of Gnosticism. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1985.

Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Christ. Second Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Fuller, Reginald H. The Foundations of NT Christology. New York: Scribner, 1965.

Gathercole, Simon J. The Pre-existent Son: Recovering the Christologies of Matthew, Mark and Luke. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.

Gaventa, Beverly R., and Hays, Richard B. Editors. Seeking the Identity of Jesus: A Pilgrimage. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008.

Geddert, Timothy J. “The Implied Yhwh Christology of Mark’s Gospel: Mark’s Challenge to the Reader to ‘Connect the Dots.’” Bulletin for Biblical Research 25 (2015): 325-40.

Gieschen, Charles A. Angelomorphic Christology: Antecedents and Early Evidence. AGJU 42; Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Grindheim, Sigurd. God’s Equal: What can we Know about Jesus’ Self-Understanding in the Synoptic Gospels? LNTS 446. London: T&T Clark, 2011.

Hamerton-Kelly, R. G. Pre-Existence, Wisdom, and the Son of Man: A Study of the Idea of PreExistence in the New Testament. Society of New Testament Studies Monograph Series 21. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Hannah, Darrell. Michael and Christ: Michael Traditions and Angel Christology in Early Christianity. WUNT 2.109. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999.

Harnack, Adolf. A History of Dogma, Volume 1. Translated by Neil Buchanan. New York: Dover, 1961.

Harvey, A. E. Jesus and the Constraints of History. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982.

Hayman, Peter. “Monotheism—A Misused Word in Jewish Studies.” Journal of Jewish Studies 42 (1991): 1–15

Hays, Richard. Reading Backwards: Figural Christology and the Fourfold Gospel Witness. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2014.

Heiser, Michael S. “The Divine Council in Late Canonical and Non-Canonical Second Temple Literature.” PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin. 2004.

Hengel, Martin. The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish-Hellenistic Religion. London: SCM, 1976.

Henrichs-Tarasenkova, Nina. Luke’s Christology of Divine Identity. LNTS 542. London: Bloomsbury, 2016.

Hillar, Marian. From Logos to Trinity: The Evolution of Religious Beliefs from Pythagoras to Tertullian. Cambridge; New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Himmelfarb, Martha. Jewish Messiahs in a Christian Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Holladay, Carl R. Theios aner in Hellenistic-Judaism: a critique of the use of this category in New Testament Christology. Missoula: Scholar’s Press, 1977.

Hooker, Morna. The Son of Man in Mark: A Study of the Background of the Term ‘Son of Man’ and Its Use in St. Mark’s Gospel. London: SPCK, 1967.

Horbury, William. Jewish Messianism and the Cult of Christ. London: SCM, 1998.

Hurtado, Larry W. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.

Hurtado, Larry W. One God, One Lord: Early Christian Devotion and Ancient Jewish Monotheism. Third Edition. London; New York: Bloomsbury, 2015.

Johannson, Daniel. “Who Can Forgive Sins but God Alone?: Human and Angelic Agents, and Divine Forgiveness in Early Judaism.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 33 (2011): 351-74.

Johannson, Daniel. “Kyrios in the Gospel of Mark.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 33 (2010): 101-24.

Johnson, Elizabeth A. Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology. New York: Crossroad, 1995.

Jonge, Marinus de. “The Use of the Word ‘Anointed’ in the Time of Jesus.” Novum Testamentum 8 (1966): 132-148.

Jonge, Marinus de. Christology in Context: The Earliest Christian Response to Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1989.

Juel, Donald. Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretation of the Old Testament in Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.

Kaiser, Christopher B. Seeing the Lord’s Glory: Kyriocentric Visions and the Dilemma of Early Christology. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2014.

Keith, Chris and Roth, Dieter T. Mark, Manuscripts, and Monotheism: Essays in Honor of Larry W. Hurtado. LNTS 58; London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2015.

Kingsbury, Jack Dean. The Christology of Mark’s Gospel. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.

Kirk, Daniel and Young, Stephen L. “I Will Set his Hand to the Sea: Psalm 88:26 (LXX) and Christology in Mark.” Journal of Biblical Literature 133 (2014): 333–40.

Kirk, J. R. Daniel.  A Man Attested by God: The Human Jesus of the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2016.

Klausner, Joseph. The Messianic Idea in Israel: From Its Beginning to the Completion of the Mishnah. New York: Macmillan Company, 1955.

Kok, Michael. “Marking a Difference: The Gospel of Mark and the “Early High Christology” Paradigm.” Journal of the Jesus Movement in its Jewish Setting 3 (2016):

Lee, Aquila H. I. From Messiah to Preexistent Son: Jesus’ Self Consciousness and Early Christian Exegesis of Messianic Psalms. WUNT II.192. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005.

Lee, Simon S. Jesus’ Transfiguration and the Believers’ Transformation: A Study of the Transfiguration and Its Development in Early Christian Writings. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009.

Litwa, M. David. IESUS DEUS: The Early Christian Depiction of Jesus as a Mediterranean God. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2014.

Loader, William. Jesus in John’s Gospel: Structures and Issues in Johannine Christology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2017.

Longenecker, Richard N. The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity. London: SCM, 1970.

Longenecker, Richard N. Editor. Contours of Christology in the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.

MacDonald, Nathan. Deuteronomy and the Meaning of “Monotheism.” Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003.

Marcus, Joel. The Way of the Lord: Christological Exegesis of the Old Testament in the Gospel of Mark. London: T&T Clark International, 1992.

Marshall, I. Howard. The Origins of New Testament Christology. London: IVP, 1976.

Matera, Frank. New Testament Christology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.

McDonough, Sean M. Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

McGrath, James F. John’s Apologetic Christology: Legitimation and Development in Johannine Christology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

McGrath, James F. The One True God: Early Christian Monotheism in its Jewish Context. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Moule, C. F. D. The Origin of Christology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Meeks, Wayne A. The Prophet-King: Moses Traditions and the Johannine Christology. NovTSup 14. Leiden: Brill, 1967.

Moss, Candida. “The Transfiguration: An Exercise in Markan Accommodation.” Biblical Interpretation 12 (2004): 69-89.

Mowinckel, Sigmund. He That Cometh. The Messiah Concept in the Old Testament and Later Judaism.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1956.

Müller, Mogens. The Expression ‘Son of Man’ and the Development of Christology: A History of Interpretation. London: Equinox, 2008.

Neusner, Jacob. Messiah in Context: Israel’s History and Destiny in Formative Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

Neusner, J., Green, W. S., and Frerichs, E. Editors. Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Newman, Carey C., James R. Davila, and Gladys S. Lewis. Editors. The Jewish Roots of Christological Monotheism. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Nickelsburg, George and John J. Collins, eds. Ideal Figures in Ancient Judaism. Chico: Scholars Press, 1980.

Novenson, Matthew V. Christ among the Messiahs: Christ Language in Paul and Messiah Language in Ancient Judaism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Novenson, Matthew V. The Grammar of Messianism: An Ancient Jewish Political Idiom and its Users. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

O’Collins, Gerald. Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Orlov, Andrei A. The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism 107. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005.

Papandrea, James L. The Earliest Christologies: Five Images of Christ in the Postapostolic Age. Downers Grove: IVP, 2016.

Peppard, Michael. The Son of God in the Roman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Porter, Stanley E. Editor. The Messiah in the Old and New Testaments. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.

Powell, Mark Allan, and Bauer, David R. Editors. Who Do You Say That I Am? Essays on Christology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.

Rainbow, Paul. “Jewish Monotheism as a Matrix for New Testament Christology: A Review Article.” Novum Testamentum 33 (1991): 78-91.

Rowe, C. Kavin. Early Narrative Christology: The Lord in the Gospel of Luke. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2006.

Rowland, Christopher. The Open Heaven. A Study of Apocalyptic Judaism and Christianity. New York: Crossroads, 1982.

Scholem, Gershom. The Messianic Idea and Other Essays.  New York: Schocken, 1971.

Segal, Alan F. Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism. Leiden: Brill, 1977.

Stuckenbruck, Loren T. Angel Veneration and Christology: A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John. WUNT 2.70. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1995.

Stuckenbruck, Loren T. and North, Wendy E. S. Editors. Early Jewish and Christian Monotheism. JSNTSupp 263. London: T&T Clark, 2004.

Talbert, Charles H. The Development of Christology during the First Hundred Years: and Other Essays on Early Christian Christology. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 140. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Tilling, Chris. Paul’s Divine Christology. WUNT 323. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012.

Tuckett, Christopher M. Christology and the New Testament: Jesus and His Earliest Followers. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001.

Vermes, Geza. Christian Beginnings: From Nazareth to Nicaea. London: Penguin, 2012.

Vermes, Geza. The Changing Faces of Jesus. London: Penguin, 2000.

Waddell, James. The Messiah: A Comparative Study of the Enochic Son of Man and the Pauline Kyrios. Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2013.

Watts, Rikki E. Isaiah’s New Exodus in Mark. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2000.

Whitenton, Michael R. Hearing Kyriotic Sonship: A Cognitive and Rhetorical Approach to the Characterization of Mark’s Jesus. Leiden: Brill, 2016.

Wink, Walter. The Human Being: The Enigma of the Son of Man. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001.

 Witherington III, Ben. Jesus the Sage: The Pilgrimage of Wisdom. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994.
Witherington III, Ben. The Christology of Jesus. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

Wright, N. T. Paul and the Faithfulness of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God, Volume 4. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2013.

Wright, N. T. The New Testament and the People of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.

Zetterholm, Magnus. Editor. The Messiah in Early Judaism and Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.

Other helpful bibliographies:

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