Another theory for why the call story of the tax collector Levi (cf. Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27) was turned into the call of the Apostle Matthew in Matthew 9:9 and 10:3 is presented in the Hermeneia commentary by Ulrich Luz. In his commentary on Matthew 8-20, Ulrich Luz makes the following argument on page 32:
“But why was it Matthew and not another member of the Twelve – for example, Thomas or Bartholomew – who was honored with this story of a call? Did it happen simply by accident? Or because the name of Matthew had symbolic significance? Or because Matthew was the ancestor and founding apostle of the area of the church in which our gospel was written? That the author [of the Gospel] was so unfamiliar with the founding apostle of his own church that he had to provide him with a ‘foreign’ call story speaks against this thesis. He does not know anything else to report about him. To me a more probable supposition is that it was still known of Matthew that he was a tax collector; therefore the story of Levi’s call fit his situation. In short, it is improbable that the Matthean community venerated the apostle Matthew as its founding apostle and the guarantor of its tradition.”
Do you agree that there might have been a vague memory that Matthew had once been a tax collector before his apostolic calling, but the details of his life in that profession had long been forgotten and thus the call to discipleship of another tax-collector named Levi was transferred over to him? Luz goes on to argue that the ascription of the New Testament Gospel to Matthew was made solely as an inference from the name change in Matthew 9:9 (p. 33), but would this verse alone lead early Christians to believe that Matthew was the author of this text?