I have seen a few lists of the books of the year over at the blogs Crux Sola and Jesus Creed. Let me know if you have spotted other such lists relating to the Bible, Judaism and Christianity, or Religious Studies. I have also been advertising my own book The Beloved Apostle? The Transformation of the Apostle John into the Fourth Evangelist (Amazon.com, Amazon.ca, Amazon.co.uk, Amazon.es). For any last-minute Christmas shoppers, would not these books make great presents? 😀
I have been dabbling in the Synoptic Problem over the Christmas season, going through the infancy narratives in Matthew and Luke and making observations about whether they are independent of each other or whether one has influenced the other. However, I have to tip my hat to those experts who have devoted their PhD theses and their scholarly careers to tackling this issue. I want to point out some of the exciting activity that is going online right now:
I have known about Allan Garrow’s distinctive hypothesis (see his article “Streeter’s ‘Other’ Synoptic Solution: The Matthew Conflator Hypothesis” New Testament Studies 62 : 207-226 and his personal website) since I heard him present at the University of Sheffield while I was a PhD student there. Anyways, a reader of Bart Ehrman’s blog named Evan offered to give a $1000 donation if Ehrman could either find holes in Garrow’s thesis or state that he was convinced by it (see here, here, here). Then, Ehrman found another expert, Mark Goodacre, who posted his response at Ehrman’s site and at his own NT Blog. I will be interested to see how this debate develops.
Second, courtesy of The Jesus Blog, I learned that the Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus has published review articles (by Sarah Rollens, Rafael Rodriguez, Robert Derrenbacker, and Mark Goodacre) of Alan Kirk’s monograph Q in Matthew: Ancient Media, Memory, and Early Scribal Transmission of the Jesus Tradition. I have not read the book yet, but I have met Kirk and listen to some of his presentations which I remembered as quite compelling, so I would be interested in checking out these reviews. I am convinced of Markan priority but my position of the double tradition wavers between Q, multiple oral and written sources, and Luke’s use of Matthew depending on what day I wake up. Another article of note in the same volume is Daniel N Gullotta’s “On Richard Carrier’s Doubts: A Response to Richard Carrier’s On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt.”
Update: Alan Garrow responds to Mark Goodacre on Ehrman’s blog.
I am working through Ben C. Smith’s Synoptic Project and Mahlon H. Smith’s Hyper-Synopsis. This section is on the circumstances of Jesus’s birth in Matthew 1:18-25 and Luke 2:1-7 (here, here, here). For the similarities, the last post discussed the six-word verbatim agreement kai kaleseis to onoma autou Iēsoun (and you will call his name Jesus) in Matthew 1:21 and Luke 1:31 and the striking fact that an angel (named Gabriel in Luke) appeared to the opposite parent in Luke 1:26-38 and Matthew 1:20-21. There is agreement about Mary’s betrothal [lexical form mnēsteuō] to Joseph (cf. Mark 6:3; John 6:42), Joseph’s descent from David (Matthew 1:20; Luke 2:4; 1:27; 3:23, 31), Mary’s virginal conception via the power of the Holy Spirit (Matthew 1:18, 20, 23), the wording that Mary “bore a/the son” (eteken [ton] huion – Luke adds “of her” [autēs] and adjective “the firstborn” [ton prōtotokon]), and the city of Bethlehem (Luke 1:4; Matthew 2:1). However, the differences outweigh the similarities:
- Luke 1:26-56 focused on Mary’s perspective (e.g. her humble response to the angel and song of praise), while Matthew 1:18-25 focused on Joseph’s perspective (his “just” decision to divorce Mary quietly so as not to subject her to public disgrace, the vision that re-assured him, and the note that he “did not know” [eginōsken] her until after the birth of the son). Is this a sign that the two accounts are independent or that one writer switched to the opposite parent in reaction to the other?
- Matthew builds on the etymology of the name Jesus to explain how he will save his people from their sins and cites a proof-text from the Septuagint version of Isaiah 7:14 to support the virginal conception of Jesus. Luke offers no scriptural justification for this, but seems to suggest that “on account of” (dio) the virginal conception Jesus has the status of God’s son (1:36; cf. 3:38).
- According to Luke 2:1-5, Joseph had to journey to Bethlehem to register for the “first census” (apographē prōtē) covering the inhabited (Roman) world (oikoumenē) when Quirinius was governing Syria.
- Josephus reports a census under the governor Quirinius that took place after the ethnarch Archelaus, the son of “Herod the Great” who ruled over Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, was disposed from office by the Romans and his territory was annexed by Syria in 6 CE (Antiquities 17.342-44, 355; 18.1-4). It was for the purposes of liquidating Archelaus’s assets and for taxation. Luke, however, seems to date the census in the reign of Herod “the Great” who died in 4 BCE (cf. Luke 1:5) as opposed to the reign of his son “Herod” Antipas, the “tetrarch” ruling Galilee and Peraea (cf. Luke 3:1). The historical questions would take us beyond the scope of this post (e.g. a previous census before 6 CE, a translation error, a chronological mistake on either Luke’s or Josephus’s part?).
- Because Mary and Joseph did not have a “place” (topos) or “room” (marital chamber) in their “accommodations” (katalyma) in Bethlehem for them to care for their newborn, they put baby Jesus in a manger or animal feeding trough that was inside a village house. For this re-reading of the text, in contrast to the traditional Christmas image that Jesus was born in a barn because there was no room at the inn, see Stephen C. Carlson, “The Accommodations of Joseph and Mary in Bethlehem.”
- Matthew does not narrate that Mary was from Nazareth (Luke 1:26, 56) or the reasons why the pre-married couple travelled to Bethlehem; Joseph’s accommodations in a “house” (oikia) in Bethlehem will be described in Matthew’s next chapter (2:11).
I am working through Ben C. Smith’s Synoptic Project page and Mahlon H. Smith’s Hyper-Synopsis. Read the verses in Luke 1:5-25 (here, here), 1:26-38 (here, here), 1:39-56 (here, here, here), and 1:57-80 (here, here, here, here).
In this section, we have unique Lukan material (“L”) that provides predictions of the births of John and Jesus. There are many important key themes in these verses that will be echoed throughout Luke:
- Pairing women and men: see Felix Just’s “Story Pairs in Luke’s Gospel” and Marg Mowczko “Male-Female Pairs and Parallelism in Luke’s Gospel“
- Temple: see Peter Head’s “The Temple in Luke’s Gospel,” N. H. Taylor’s “The Jerusalem Temple in Luke-Acts,” and Ronald C. Fay’s “The Narrative Function of the Temple in Luke-Acts.”
- Holy Spirit: see Graham H. Twelftree’s “The Holy Spirit in Luke-Acts” and Felix Just’s “The Holy Spirit in the New Testament.”
- Vision of angel(s): see Luke 2:9-14; 24:4-7, 23; Acts 5:19-20; 8:26; 12:7-10, 23; 27:23-24.
- Jesus as “Lord” (kyrios): see the list of occurrences of kyrios in the New Testament here and C. Kavin Rowe’s Early Narrative Christology: The Lord in the Gospel of Luke.
- The theme of reversal in Mary’s Magnificat (Luke 1:46-55; cf. 6:20-26; 14:7-26). By the way, Mary’s song proves that she really did know!
- Forgiveness of sins (Luke 1:77; cf. 3:3; 24:47; Acts 2:38; 5:31; 10:43; 13:38; 26:18)
Whether one judges Luke to be independent or dependent on Matthew, I can see why Luke wanted to include these stories because they are so positive and memorable. On the other hand, if one were to judge Matthew to be dependent on Luke, I have a harder time seeing why Matthew would want to exclude these stories. Sure, Matthew’s infancy story echoes some of Matthew’s themes elsewhere too, but one would wonder why Matthew would pass over this section if he either knew Luke or these underlying traditions:
- John’s parents (cf. Luke 3:2): their Torah-observant piety might have appealed to Matthew and, to explain how John the Baptizer recognized Jesus when he tried to dissuade him from getting baptized (Matthew 3:15-16), Matthew could have found Luke’s notice that John’s mother Elizabeth was Mary’s kinswoman to be helpful (Luke 1:36, 40-45).
- Continuity with the Jewish Scriptures:
- the fulfillment of promises made to Abraham and his descendants (1:55, 68-75)
- the scriptural trope of the barren woman who is granted fertility (Sarai, Rebekah, Rachel, Manoah’s wife, and especially Hannah who dedicated her hoped-for child in the temple),
- the name of the angel “Gabriel” (cf. Daniel 8:16; 9:21)
- the Nazarite vow (Luke 1:15; cf. Luke 7:33/Matthew 11:18)
- the allusion to the prediction in Malachi 4:5-6 about Elijah redivivus (Luke 1:17), especially when Matthew makes the connection of Elijah and John more explicit than Mark (Matthew 17:13; Matthew 17:10-12/Mark 9:11-13).
- the expression “house” or “throne” of David (Matthew 1:1, 20 describes Jesus and Joseph as “son of David”).
- the explicit explanation of how the Holy Spirit enabled the virgin Mary to conceive and the link to Jesus’s divine sonship (1:34-35; compare to Matthew 1:18, 23).
Nevertheless, there are a few potential agreements that are worthy of further consideration:
- It is not unfathomable that Matthew and Luke independently supplemented Mark’s account with an infancy narrative given that this was a feature of other ancient bioi or “lives,” while it is harder to explain Mark’s omission of Jesus’s birth (e.g. perhaps Mark begins with the church’s proclamation of the preaching of John the Baptizer like in the speeches in Acts).
- Nevertheless, the focus on Joseph in Matthew and on Mary in Luke could either be a coincidence (e.g. Luke distinctly spotlights other named women in 1:5-25, 39-45, 59-80; 2:36-38; 8:2-3; 10:38-42) or could be a deliberate shift in response to the other Gospel.
- There is an agreement in Luke 1:31 and Matthew 1:21: Luke’s “you will bear a son” [texē huion] and Matthew’s “but she will bear a son” [texetai de huion] differs due to the weak conjunction de and the second person address to Mary in Luke or third-person reference to Mary when addressed to Joseph in Matthew. There is a six-word verbatim agreement in the line “and you will call the name of him Jesus” [kai kaleseis to onoma autou Iēsoun] which Matthew follows with an explanation of the name. Does this demand literary contact between the Gospels, a shared infancy source, or a short saying preserved intact in the oral tradition and put in two different contexts in the respective narratives?
For a word-by-word comparison of Matthew 1:2-17 and Luke 3:23-28, see “the genealogy of Jesus” by Ben C. Smith and “Jesus’ Lineage” in Mahlon H. Smith’s Hyper-Synopsis. I found some resources online (let me know by email if I should include further posts):
- Monographs: Raymond E. Brown’s The Birth of the Messiah; Marshall D. Johnson’s The Purpose of the Biblical Genealogies with Special Reference to the Setting of the Genealogies of Jesus; Anne Clement’s Mother’s On the Margin: The Significance of the Women in Matthew’s Genealogy
- Article: “genealogy of Jesus” in the Dictionary of the Bible
- Ben C. Smith’s follow-up post on “the genealogy of Jesus”
- Bart Ehrman’s posts on “Matthew’s Genealogy“, “Matthew’s Genealogy: The Number Fourteen“, “The Women in Matthew’s Genealogy“, “The Women in Matthew’s Genealogy: Answer to a Reader“, and “Luke’s Genealogy“
- Claude Mariottini’s series on the overlooked grand-mothers of Jesus (here, here, here, here, here) and on the name Asaph (here)
- Craig Keener’s posts on “Preaching from Jesus’s Genealogy“, “The Genealogy of Jesus in Matthew“, “Jesus as Son of David, Son of Abraham“, and “The Birth of Jesus – Women and Gentiles in Matthew’s Genealogy“
- Danny Zacharias’s post on “Why is Jesus’ Genealogy Different in Matthew and Luke“
- Mark Goodacre’s NT Pods on “Matthew’s Genealogy” and “Jesus’ Genealogy in Luke’s Gospel“
- Mark Strauss, “Why are Jesus’ Genealogies in Matthew and Luke Different“
- Peter Lorenz posts on “When was Bezae’s Lukan Genealogy Harmonized“, “Is Bezae’s Lukan Genealogy the Work of an Editor“, “Aphraates, Bezae, and the 63 generations from Adam to Christ“, and “Did a Manichaean tract inspire Bezae’s Lukan genealogy?“
- Sandra Glahn’s posts on “The Five Not-So-Scandalous Women in Jesus’s Genealogy” and “The Women in Jesus’s Genealogy: If Not Scandalous, What? (Part 2)“
- Steven J. Cole’s post “Lesson 14: The Genealogy of Jesus (Luke 3:23-38)” and David Anderson’s post “Lesson 1: The Genealogy Of The Promised King (Matthew 1:1-17)“
If you looked at the posts above, you read a range of historical and theological approaches to the two distinct genealogies. These posts have helped my own thoughts as they relate to the “Synoptic Problem.”
- Ancient biographers were interested in the ancestry and birth of their principal subjects. It is not unfathomable that Matthew and Luke independently supplemented Mark’s biography, while it is harder to explain Mark’s omission of Jesus’s genealogy, birth, and upbringing (e.g. perhaps Mark begins with the church’s proclamation of the preaching of John the Baptizer like in the speeches in Acts).
- Drawing on the Jewish Scriptures or early Christian tradition:
- Jesus’s immediate family (Mark 6:3; John 6:42)
- Jesus’ descent from the patriarchs (Acts 3:13, 25-26; Galatians 3:16; Romans 4:13; Hebrews 7:14)
- Jesus’ descent from David (Mark 10:47-48; John 7:42; Acts 15:16; Romans 1:4; 2 Timothy 2:8; Revelation 5:5; 22:16)
- Shared names: Abraham (Genesis 17:15; 1 Chronicles 1:27), Isaac (Genesis 21:3; 1 Chronicles 1:28), Jacob (Genesis 25:26; 1 Chronicles 1:34), Judah (Genesis 29:35; 1 Chronicles 2:1), Perez (Genesis 38:29; 1 Chronicles 2:4), Hezron (Genesis 46:12; Ruth 4:18; 1 Chronicles 2:5), Amminadab (Ruth 4:19; 1 Chronicles 2:10), Nahshon (Ruth 4:20; 1 Chronicles 2:10), Salmon/Sala (Ruth 4:20; 1 Chronicles 2:11), Boaz (Ruth 4:21; 1 Chronicles 2:11), Obed (Ruth 4:22; 1 Chronicles 2:12), Jesse (1 Samuel 16:1; Ruth 4:22; 1 Chronicles 2:12), David (1 Samuel 17:12; Ruth 4:22; 1 Chronicles 2:15), Shealtiel (1 Chronicles 3:17), Zerubbabel (1 Chronicles 3:19; Ezra 3:2; Nehemiah 12:1; Haggai 1:1)
- Independent Evangelists?
- They borrowed their genealogies from older sources (cf. possible explanations for the discrepancies in the links above) or freely created their genealogies for theological reasons, but without knowledge of the other. This may explain why there is little overlap of names, including even Jesus’s grandfather.
- Matthew influenced Luke?
- Observing the many wicked kings of Judah and that Jehoiachin’s descendants were cut off from the Davidic covenant of a perpetual dynasty (Jeremiah 22:30; 36:30; cf. 2 Kings 24:6-16; 25:27-30; 2 Chronicles 36:9-10), Luke drew on or created a different genealogy from another son of David named Nathan (2 Samuel 5:14; 1 Chronicles 3:5). Luke traced Jesus’s divine sonship back to God, stressed Jesus’s connection to all humanity with the line from Adam to Terah, and drew on or created a different list from Rhesa to Heli.
- Luke influenced Matthew?
- Observing that Luke listed several descendants of David that are otherwise unattested, though some names are reminiscent of other biblical characters (cf. 1 Chronicles, Amos, Nahum), Matthew chose the straightforward royal line (with some omissions) from Solomon to Johoiachin. Note that the curse against Jehoiachin was removed from his grandson and Davidic governor Zerubbabel (Haggai 2:20-24; Zechariah 3:8) and Matthew drew on or created a different list from Abiud to Jacob. Matthew restricted Luke’s universalistic focus to the covenant people descended from Abraham and thematically arranged the list into sets of 14 regardless of how the individual names are counted (cf. possible explanations in the links above).
- Source Question about Matthew’s inclusion of the women Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, and Bathsheba
- Did Matthew name these women because they helped to advance the divine purposes just like Mary did, despite the unconventional means in their patriarchal cultural context, or because of their non-Jewish origins (Rahab the Canaanite, Ruth the Moabitess, Bathsheba as the wife of Uriah the Hittite)?
- If Luke knew Matthew, would the author have excluded these names despite the text’s concern for women (e.g. 8:2-3; 10:38-42) and Gentiles (2:32; 4:16-30) or were the names omitted so the genealogy sticks to the line of patrilineal descent?
The opening in Mark 1:1 is abrupt and grammatically awkward. The verbless sentence “beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ [Son of God]” has no predicate and the link with the “as [kathōs] it has been written [gegraptai]” in verse 2 is unclear. Some argue that the prophetic proof texts in verses 2-3 belong with verse 1, noting that kathōs (Mark 4:33; 9:13; 11:6; 14:16, 21; 16:7) and gegraptai (Mark 7:6; 9:12-13; 11:17; 4:21, 27) are usually preceded by something, or verse 1 is an independent title to the beginning section or the whole narrative with verses 2-3 explicating the following appearance of the Baptizer in verse 4. The term “gospel” or “good news” (euangelion) encapsulates the content of Jesus’s message about the kingdom of God or the disciples preaching (about the kingdom or the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus?) in Mark 1:14-15, 8:35, 10:29, 13:10, and 14:9 (cf. 16:15; Matthew 9:35; 24:14; 26:13), but the “good news” here focuses on Jesus Christ. “Son of God” is in square brackets because it is uncertain whether the words were original or a scribal interpolation; a recent overview of the textual evidence and scholarly debate with the aim of defending the originality of the longer reading can be found here, here, and here.
Matthew 1:1 also lacks a predicate containing a verb and verse 2 begins a new sentence. The “book” (roll) or “record” of the “genealogy” or “genesis/origin” of Jesus Christ stands alone as either the heading for the following genealogy or infancy story or for the literary work as a whole. The Greek Christos translates the Hebrew mashiach or “anointed one” and his status as “son of David” alludes to the fulfillment of the perpetual dynasty promised to David and his descendants (2 Samuel 7:12-14; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14). He was born into the covenant family of Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3; 15:1-21; 17:1-27) and the genealogy will trace his descent through the patriarchs.
The prologue in Luke 1:1-4 imitates literary conventions of the wider Graeco-Roman world, though the generic classification of Luke-Acts is debated (cf. David Aune, Loveday Alexander, Sean A. Adams, David P. Moessner, Marianne Palmer Bonz, Claire K. Rothschild, Gregory E. Sterling, Daniel Marguerat). The author remains anonymous, but the text is addressed to Theophilus, either a wealthy patron who sponsored the writer’s project or a cipher for the church (“friend of God”). “Many” (polloi) “attempted” or “undertook” (epecheirēsan) “to compile or arrange” (anataxasthai) a “narrative” (diēgēsis), but the sources are not named (e.g. Mark/Q/L, Mark/Matthew, John, Papias, non-extant written or oral sources, rhetorical hyperbole?). The matters fulfilled or accomplished in the author’s day were transmitted from the start by “witnesses and subordinates” (autopai kai hupēretai), referring to either a chain of transmission from the eyewitnesses to their followers or to a single group modified by the phrase “being of the word [literary composition?]” (genomenoi tou logou). The prior attempts may be subtly criticized by the evangelist who, following everything “precisely” or “accurately” (akribōs) from the beginning, wrote it up “in order or sequence” (kathexēs). Luke re-arranged his sources to either offer a better chronological arrangement or rhetorical presentation of the material.
I will continually add to and update this post as I work through the Synoptic Gospels, but this outline will take us to the end of Christmas.
|His name is John||–||–||1:57-80|
|Circumstances of Jesus’ birth||1:18-25||–||2:1-7|
|Baby Jesus at the temple||–||–||2:21-39a|
|Magi from the east||2:1-12||–||–|
|Escape to Egypt||2:13-20||–||–|
|Raised in Nazareth||2:21-23||–||2:39b-40, 52|
The latest biblical studies carnival for the month of November 2017 has been posted by Jim West here. He includes both links to blog posts and tweets about the latest meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature.
I wrote a guest post entitled “The Traditions about the Apostle and Evangelist John” at Matthew W. Ferguson’s blog. In the post, I give a summary of the different church traditions about the fourth evangelist and explain why some interpreters, in both the past and the present, have found it so necessary to connect the New Testament writings to one of the “apostles” or “sent ones” appointed by Jesus himself rather than another otherwise unknown yet devout Christ follower. Have a read through the post and let me know whether you think it is important, on either historical or theological grounds, that the Apostle John be the author of the Fourth Gospel and why or why not.
I have been thinking about new series for this blog. I am going to be continuing to add to posts under the “My Courses” tab and promoting my book, but I have also been thinking about going through the three Synoptic Gospels verse-by-verse and word-by-word and just writing down my rough observations without relying on any secondary scholarship. I will probably just get through the infancy narratives in Matthew and Luke, just in time for Christmas! For other synopses that put the first three Synoptic Gospels in parallel columns, see “Texts and Synopses” at NT Gateway (a few broken links can be found here and here) and the online discussion generated by Zeba A. Crook’s Parallel Gospels: A Synopsis of Early Christian Writing (see here, here, here, here).